by kuzak / 1,334 Views
by kuzak / 5,135 Views
- Wide range of infections
- Candida albicans is the most virulent species
- Candida spp. are common organisms of the skin, GI and UG tracts.
- Candidiasis is a disease of compromised hosts.
Mucocutaneous (T CELL IMPAIRMENT)
- GI tract, skin, vagina
Symptoms: Odynophagia, stridor etc.
Diagnosis: White pseudomembranous plaques with hyphae, pseudohyphae, and budding yeast.
Direct smear of urine from a patient with candidiasis of the kidney showing C.albicans in mycelial or tissue with blastoconidia budding from the pseudohyphae
Screening test for the identification of C.albicans.
Production of germ tubes by C.albicans in serum or plasma after 2-3 hours incubation at 37 degree/Centigrade.
> Groups at risk
- HIV patients
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis – autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidosis ectodermal dystrophy
• Inherited disorder of CMI to candida along with polyendocrinopathies
• Intractable candida infection of the mucocutaneous areas
• Concurrent adrenal insufficiency and hypoparathyroidism
Type I diabetes
- Ectodermal dystrophy
Deeply invasive Candidiasis (think CANCER)
> Systems affected/ symptoms and signs:
- Endocarditis – organism is sticky
- Acute, shock-like syndrome
- Renal dysfunction
> At risk groups:
- Altered barriers
- Adherence and colonization
- Penetration through mucosal barriers and angioinvasions/access through catheters
- Hematogenous spread
- Replication yields necrosis +/- abscess with budding yeast and hyphae
Look at the fundus! Candida goes to the eyes!
Virulence factors of Candida
- Surface receptors
- Cell wall is an immune modulator
- Hydrolytic enzymes – e.g. acid protease, phospholipase
- Host mimicry – e.g. C3D receptor
- Dimorphism – makes it hardy! >> Germ tube + species.
Following are the examples of Candidiasis of some specific areas
Angular Cheilitis an intertrigo and fissuring caused by maceration of the corners of the mouth is
frequently complicated by chronic infection with C.albicans.
Interdigital Candidiasis of the hands may develop particularly in persons whose hands stay wet,
especially with sugar solution or contact with flour.
Interdigital candidiasis of the feet explain 1% of cases or athletes foot and must be distinguished from tinea pedis
caused by dermatophytes
Intertriginous or flexural candidiasis of the groin may also mimic tinea cruris caused by a dermatophyte.
Note erythematous scaling lesions with distinctive border and several small satellite lesions.
Intertriginous or flexural candidiasis behind the knee showing an extensive erythematous scaling lesion and several smaller satellite lesions caused by C.albic
by kuzak / 4,208 Views
by kuzak / 684 Views
Before we even open our mouths, we can actually telegraph an enormous amount about our personalities simply by the way we look.
Whether other people get a sense of our personalities from the hair color we choose, or the manner in which we dress ourselves, so much can be revealed before a single word has been spoken.
by kuzak / 1,527 Views
The human body is everything that makes up, well, you. The basic parts of the human body are the head, neck, torso, arms and legs.
Our bodies consist of a number of biological systems that carry out specific functions necessary for everyday living.
The job of the circulatory system is to move blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hormones, around the body. It consists of the heart, blood, blood vessels,arteries and veins.
by kuzak / 748 Views
The thought of breast cancer is scary and troubles women worldwide.
What may cause you to raise your eyebrows is that women in Asian countries such as China have lower incidences of the illness. Dietary preferences may explain this phenomenon.What is breast cancer?
Simply put, mammary cancer happens when cells in the breast turn rogue. They grow fast, forming tumors which a doctor can usually detect via a mammogram or an X-Ray of the chest area. Though these tumors are more common in women, they may develop in men as well.
Malignant tumors that begin in the milk duct, or ductal carcinomas, are the most familiar type of breast cancer. Cancers arising in the lobules, or lobular carcinomas, happen less.
by kuzak / 831 Views
by kuzak / 1,661 Views
Instant noodles are everyone’s favorite. They are easy to cook and quite tasty when garnished with the right toppings.
Kids love their occasional noodle treats. Parents who work full time often find it convenient to fix their kids a delicious bowl of noodles for dinner, and often fix themselves one, too.
While a steaming bowl of chicken soup is a favorite home remedy during flu season, hot soupy noodles have also gained popularity as a comfort food during sick spells.
by kuzak / 33,953 Views
by kuzak / 679 Views
After three days without rest, I asked the bride’s mother (who taught meditation classes) what to do. She claimed to have just the trick to solve my problem. It not only worked, but also changed my life!
It’s called the ’4-7-8′ method. This is what you need to do:
1. Breathe calmly through your nose for 4 seconds.